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|Title: ||NO-TILL PROVIDES THE OPPORTUNITY TO MANAGE UNDERGROUND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI, WEEDS AND CROP PLANTS UNDER MEDITERRANEAN CONDITIONS|
|Authors: ||Brito, Isabel|
Goss, Michael J.
|Issue Date: ||2012|
|Abstract: ||Early colonization of crop roots by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is considered beneficial but its importance likely depends on the possible stresses faced by the host plant. Manganese toxicity is one such stress that AM can alleviate. Colonization initiated by extraradical mycelium (ERM) is faster than other sources of inoculum. No-till creates the possibility of encouraging inoculation via this source. At seeding time the ERM available for colonizing plants under no-till would have developed in association with previous crops or those weeds that germinated after the first autumn rain. However, the long, hot and dry summer under Mediterranean conditions might reduce the effectiveness of the ERM to colonize the new crop. The hypothesis that an intact ERM developed by weeds can affect the earlier AM colonization of wheat and alleviate Mn toxicity was tested in a pot experiment. Two mycotrophic (Ornithopus compressus L., Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and one non-mycotrophic (Silene galica L) weed species were grown for 7 weeks before being controlled with Glyphosate (the ERM remaining intact) or by mechanical disturbance (which also disrupted the ERM). Wheat was then planted and allowed to grow for 21 days. AM colonization, plant dry weight and shoot nutrient content were evaluated for both weeds and wheat. When an intact mycelium was present at the seeding of wheat (treatments with Ornithopus compressus and Lolium rigidum controlled by Glyphosate) there was a threefold increase in the AM colonization rate and growth of the crop compared with results for all the other treatments. The enhanced growth of wheat was associated with an alleviation of Mn toxicity, consistent with the hypothesis. However, there was a significant difference of the wheat growth after Ornithopus and Lolium (1.9 times), suggesting functional diversity within mycotrophic weeds and crops.|
|Appears in Collections:||MED - Artigos em Livros de Actas/Proceedings|
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