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|Title: ||Brass lamps: Preliminary study on the constituent materials and production technology by X-ray and microscopical techniques|
|Authors: ||Simas, M.|
Le Gac, A.
|Editors: ||Marques Ferreira dos Santos, Joaquim|
Carvalho, Maria Luísa
Caldas de Freitas, Elisabete Dinora
Bernardes Monteiro, Cristina Maria
|Keywords: ||Brass lamps|
X-ray and microscopical techniques
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||EDXRF 2011 Proceedings, Coimbra|
|Citation: ||M. Simas, T. Ferreira, C. Dias, N. Schiavon, E. Fragoso, M. J. Furtado, R. J. C. Silva, A. Le Gac, A. Alegria, Brass Lamps: Preliminary Study on the Constituent Materials and Production Technology by X-ray and Microscopical Techniques, Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on X-ray Spectrometry, EDXRF 2011 Proceedings, Coimbra, Portugal, 2011, 11 pp, ISBN: 978-989-20-2881-1|
|Abstract: ||This paper reports a preliminary study concerning two brass lamps belonging to the Évora
Museum collection and one brass lamp belonging to a private collection. The main objective
of this study was to acquire scientific data to assess the production technology used in the
making of these lamps. Optical microscopy, X-ray digital radiography and scanning electron
microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) were used to study the base, oil
reservoir and the reflector of the selected lamps.
SEM/EDS analysis showed that although the analyzed parts of the lamps have slightly different
elemental compositions, they are all made out of yellow brass (Cu 70% and Zn 30%, in w.t.)
and soft-solder (Pb-Sn alloy). The lamp bases alloys also contain tin, which increases the
dezincification resistance, and lead was also found in one of the lamps, which is known to
increase malleability and reduce the melting point of the alloy.
Metallographic procedures were performed on two selected components of a lamp.
Observation of as-cast and wrought brass microstructures support the main processing
techniques used in manufacturing of this kind of objects. Likewise, the metallic phase
encountered – alpha – of the Cu-Zn binary system – are in agreement with the elemental
This study reveals the importance of the radiography analysis to obtain a better understanding
of structural aspects, as much thickness and density as mechanical processes and their
impact on the manufacture of the different elements of these lamps. Fissures, cracks and
restoration marks could also be identified in these lamps.|
|Appears in Collections:||QUI - Artigos em Livros de Actas/Proceedings|
CQE - Artigos em Livros de Actas/Proceedings
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