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Title: Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production.
Authors: Stanghellini, C.
Baptista, F.J.
Eriksson, E.
Gilli, C.
Giuffrida, F.
Kempkes, F.
Muñoz, P.
Stepowska, A.
Montero, J.I.
Keywords: greenhouse
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture
Citation: Stanghellini, C., Baptista, F., Eriksson, E., Gilli, C., Giuffrida, F., Kempkes, F., Muñoz, P., Stepowska, A. , Montero, J.I. 2016. Sensible use of primary energy in organic greenhouse production. BioGreenhouse COST Action FA 1105,
Abstract: This document addresses the direct and indirect use of energy in European organic greenhouse horticulture (OGH) with the aim of reviewing available means for making it more environmental friendly and identifying knowledge gaps that should be addressed to attain this aim. The first observation is that there is no common regulation for energy use in OGH, which is not unexpected, since the need for climatisation is not uniformly distributed in the EU (and outside). Accordingly, the EU directive on organic agriculture does not set limitations on the use of energy, but rather promotes the responsible use of energy and of natural resources. The restrictions and rules of most private standards are slightly more stringent. Some standards have specific restrictions on the amount and sources of energy and/or on the seasonal use of energy for heating. Some standards also address processes that may affect (in)direct energy use, such as cultivation methods, mulching, lighting and growing media or substrates. However, most private standards have no or little restrictions or regulations on energy use. Accordingly, it should not surprise that very little quantitative information is available about energy use in OGH. In the present document we have filled the gaps with data with estimates drawn on energy use in conventional greenhouses. With respect to ongoing research, whereas many of the present research results about energy use and saving in conventional greenhouses are relevant (and also applied) in OGH, little research is devoted to address the energy use that is peculiar to OGH, particularly energy use for humidity control. In short, there are still a lot of knowledge gaps to improve quality and to lower energy use in organic greenhouses. The purpose of this document is a summary of present relevant knowledge about energy use and energy saving and of the perspective for improvement. In particular, the goal is to make an overview on the methods and technologies which can be used to reduce the energy use in OGH. We start from the assumption that methods and technologies that are used for reducing direct and indirect energy in conventional greenhouses can also be applied in organic greenhouses. Research on reducing energy use in conventional greenhouses is also more widely available because the area of conventional greenhouse horticulture is much larger than the area of OGH. When implementing these methods and techniques we should take into account the specific characteristics of organic agriculture like soil-based cultivation, use of organic fertilizers and the limited use of crop protection products. This document is organised as follows: first we report the results of a survey about energy use and relevant standards in the countries participating to the COST action (chapter 1); then we review the energy use for climatisation: heating (chapter 2) and humidity (chapter 3). In chapter 4 we review the available design and management means that would either reduce energy use and/or increase energy use efficiency by increasing productivity of OGH. In chapter 5 we present a short summary of existing information on indirect energy use, that is the energy required to manufacture production means (greenhouse structure and cover, fertilisers, equipment etc.) and for crop protection, particularly steaming, and briefly discuss possible savings. Finally (chapter 6) we review briefly the potential for application of renewable energy sources in OGH.
Type: book
Appears in Collections:MED - Publicações - Livros
ERU - Publicações - Livros

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