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Title: Outdoor airborne allergens: Characterization, behavior and monitoring in Europe
Authors: Grewling, Lukasz
Ribeiro, Helena
Antunes, Célia
Apangu, Godfrey
Çelenk, Sevcan
Costa, Ana
Eguiluz-Garcia, Ibon
Galveias, Ana
Roldan, Nestor
Lika, Mirela
Magyar, Donát
Martinez-Bracero, Moises
Orby, Pia
O´Connor, David
Penha, Maria Alexandra
Pereira, Sónia
Pérez-Badia, Rosa
Rodinkova, Victoria
Xhenati, Merita
Sauliene, Ingrida
Skjoth, Carsten
Keywords: Aeroallergens
Air pollution
Allergenic proteins
Fungal spores
Pollen grains
Issue Date: Sep-2023
Publisher: Science of the Total Environment
Citation: Grewling et al., 2023
Abstract: Aeroallergens or inhalant allergens, are proteins dispersed through the air and have the potential to induce allergic conditions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. Outdoor aeroallergens are found predominantly in pollen grains and fungal spores, which are allergen carriers. Aeroallergens from pollen and fungi have seasonal emission patterns that correlate with plant pollination and fungal sporulation and are strongly associated with atmospheric weather conditions. They are released when allergen carriers come in contact with the respiratory system, e.g. the nasal mucosa. In addition, due to the rupture of allergen carriers, airborne allergen molecules may be released directly into the air in the form of micronic and submicronic particles (cytoplasmic debris, cell wall fragments, droplets etc.) or adhered onto other airborne particulate matter. Therefore, aeroallergen detection strategies must consider, in addition to the allergen carriers, the allergen molecules themselves. This review article aims to present the current knowledge on inhalant allergens in the outdoor environment, their structure, localization, and factors affecting their production, transformation, release or degradation. In addition, methods for collecting and quantifying aeroallergens are listed and thoroughly discussed. Finally, the knowledge gaps, challenges and implications associated with aeroallergen analysis are described.
ISSN: 00489697
Type: article
Appears in Collections:DCMS - Publicações - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais Com Arbitragem Científica

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